Mining is one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to these prehistoric days when somebody grabbed a digging instrument and commenced burrowing into the bottom. In the numerous millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most essential and widespread business enterprises, with operations unfold throughout the globe while tasked with recovering an almost inexhaustible list of useful commodities.
In fact, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise have been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and almost double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian nations accounted for fifty eight percent of the 2018 manufacturing, with North America second at 15.1 percent, followed by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.8 percent), Latin America (6.3 percent), and Africa (5.3 percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) have been the most prolific producers, with their complete 51.1 p.c of manufacturing more than the relaxation of the world combined.
This signifies that the mining business is a robust one, with stable progress anticipated to continue within the coming years in plenty of areas of the world. It also implies that mining operations will proceed to depend on pumping technologies that supply strong, dependable, and secure service in a number of crucial liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why positive displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps may be your greatest option for a lot of of these purposes.
While mining would possibly look like nothing more than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to access from above—there are, actually, many complex and typically delicate operations that have to be carried out correctly if the mining operation is to perform at its highest stage of effectivity.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping technology that may function reliably in harsh and distant places, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive merchandise, and also one which is ready to be maintained and repaired in order that downtime is lessened. The pumps must also be mild enough to be manually moved from location to location inside the mine itself.
For a few years, a preferred selection to be used in these conditions was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are in a position to create the excessive circulate rates that are required, they have numerous operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining applications: an inability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to prevent leaks; special linings needed to deal with solids; excessive motor speeds of up to 1,800 rpm; and comparatively excessive maintenance requirements and costs, particularly when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another popular selection has been the progressive cavity pump, but, like centrifugal pumps, they have a quantity of operational shortcomings. These embrace an incapability to consistently handle liquids with excessive ranges of abrasives, which leads to elevated maintenance prices, wear on expensive stators and rotors that may eventually have to be changed, and general greater purchase, operating, and repair/replacement prices.
Here are a variety of the particular liquid-transfer operations that happen in a mine and the ways in which some pump applied sciences can fall brief in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a crucial 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is usually full of particulates that could be as giant as zero.12 to zero.16 inches in dimension. If used in this software, centrifugal pumps require special supplies of construction, which can be cost prohibitive, to guard in opposition to impeller wear attributable to the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are additionally not dry-run succesful, which adversely affects their degree of performance in this utility.
General service: For widespread liquid-handling applications, you need an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip lines, function at low speeds while nonetheless delivering high move rates, and be simple to maintain up and restore. Centrifugal pumps merely do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted parts of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This sometimes demands a necessity to use particular mechanical seals, which can result in exorbitant upkeep, restore, and substitute prices.
Press filter: Press filters are used to clean the liquids which may be produced in the mines and, once more, centrifugal pumps can fall brief on this application as a end result of the solid-laden liquid can injury the pump’s internals until special, more expensive supplies of development or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a robust discharge-pressure variation that may force the centrifugal pump to function away from its best effectivity level (BEP), leading to high vibration and radial hundreds that can result in shortened service life. A resolution to that is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are expensive and can negatively have an effect on the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product transfer: This is out there in all varieties in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport trucks with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, contemporary and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which are required. In each instance, there may be the danger that the pump might be forced to run dry because the truck or storage vessel is emptied, whereas discharge-pressure variation also can generate excessive vibration and radial masses. As beforehand illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, so they want protection from this situation or the addition of particular seals. However, all of those upgrades nonetheless can not totally protect in opposition to a catastrophic failure.
While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have proven to not be the best solution in many liquid-handling applications in mining, one pump technology that has proven to be an optimum choice is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and maintenance, and security for mining personnel and the surroundings.
AODD pumps are able to carry out successfully in mining purposes as a end result of their methodology of operation permits them to simply deal with variable move charges and pressures, whereas being dry-run and line-stripping capable, and nimble enough to transfer liquids which are shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, as well as slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and different particulates.
The easy design of the AODD pump features few shifting elements and comparably decrease speeds than different pump applied sciences, which improves reliability and simplifies upkeep, while the pump’s seal-less building results in fewer leaks, which is a critical consideration when dealing with the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which would possibly be prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps are available in each steel (most generally aluminum, ductile iron and solid iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, whereas a extensive selection of elastomers can be utilized within the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility issues.
A extensive number of AODD pump configurations present operational flexibility that may additionally result in optimized performance at many ranges. The ability to characteristic AODD pumps in a variety of purposes, from primary common use to delicate chemical-handling processes, permits operators to more cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps may also be less costly to function, especially those models which are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most basic, AODD pumps excel within the typical rugged and harsh working conditions discovered in the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents together with corresponding downtime and repair costs.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years in the past, has been devoted to developing applied sciences that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden provides three AODD pump models which would possibly be constructed to excel in mining purposes, out there in ductile iron, forged iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar materials of building:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which function a bolted configuration, have been constructed for use in applications that require the handling of liquids featuring large solids. The Brahma pumps have a singular top-inlet/bottom-discharge circulate orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that injury will occur as a end result of product entrapment or the settling of solids within the pump’s inside move paths. Brahma pumps can be found in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to reduce air consumption by up to 60 p.c. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate range for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as much as one hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling functionality starting from 2 to three inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps characteristic a clamped design with carrying handles for lightweight portability. Their design features large inside clearances and flow-through paths for simple passage of huge solids with no likelihood for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly further allows solids passage, while a polyurethane screen base on the inlet increases the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps featuring the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most sturdy ADS design for the toughest environments. Flow rates amongst the six models range from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures as much as 125 psi. Solids sizes that could be handled range from 1/2 to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps feature clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features completely different chamber materials, together with metal and plastics, even Kynar, which is capable of dealing with excessive ranges of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can be the most environment friendly AODD pump out there, capable of lowering up to 60 p.c air consumption. This makes it the finest option for dealing with corrosive and abrasive merchandise in mining processes. The pumps have a product vary that goes from 1.5 to three inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are capable of be outfitted with a broad array of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a various array of supplies, such as Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm range provides users the widest choice of diaphragms on the market, all of which are capable of offering extended imply time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with reduced maintenance, repair, and substitute costs.
All of these capabilities make AODD pumps the best choice for the aforementioned widespread liquid-handling functions in mining: dewatering, common service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and day by day product transfer.
In summary, Wilden AODD pumps are the best suited choice for mining purposes as a end result of they offer considerable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead functionality, along with increased operational security and a reduction in maintenance/repair costs that could be incurred by pumps that aren’t designed to handle abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps also outperform other AODD applied sciences in other vital ways: simple design with the bottom number of parts for quicker, less complicated, and safer repairs and the bottom number of spare components to inventory; latest improvements in materials of building that improve the pump’s MTBF; and improved efficiency via the utilization of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which finally ends in faster product switch with lower air consumption. เกจวัดแรงดันน้ำ4หุน continues to innovate via the event of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, each of which increase service life and safety while not compromising the dealing with of difficult liquids.
Fernando Meneses is the regional manager North Latin America for Wilden, a leading manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He may be reached at Wilden is a product brand of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of several leading pump corporations, including Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For extra information, go to or