pressure gauge octa is doubtless one of the world’s oldest industries, tracing its roots back to those prehistoric days when someone grabbed a digging instrument and began burrowing into the ground. In the many millennia since, mining has grown into one of the world’s most essential and widespread commercial enterprises, with operations unfold across the globe whereas tasked with recovering an virtually inexhaustible record of useful commodities.
In reality, according to the World Mining Congress’s World Mining Data 2020 report, 17.7 billion metric tons of mined merchandise have been recovered in 2018, up from 11.3 billion metric tons in 2000 and practically double the 9.6 billion metric tons in 1985. Asian international locations accounted for fifty eight % of the 2018 production, with North America second at 15.1 p.c, followed by Europe (8 percent), Oceania (6.eight percent), Latin America (6.three percent), and Africa (5.three percent). Individually, China (23 percent), the United States (12.1 percent), Russia (9.2 percent), and Australia (7.2 percent) had been probably the most prolific producers, with their whole fifty one.1 percent of production more than the the rest of the world mixed.
This implies that the mining industry is a robust one, with strong development anticipated to proceed in the coming years in many areas of the world. It additionally means that mining operations will proceed to rely on pumping applied sciences that offer sturdy, dependable, and protected service in numerous critical liquid-handling operations. This white paper will illustrate why optimistic displacement air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps can be your best option for lots of of these purposes.
THE CHALLENGE

While mining would possibly appear to be nothing more than a rough-and-tumble operation—holes are dug by heavy equipment or with explosives, opening the hidden ode to entry from above—there are, in reality, many complex and typically delicate operations that should be carried out properly if the mining operation is to carry out at its highest stage of efficiency.
From a macro standpoint, this requires a pumping expertise that can function reliably in harsh and remote locations, even when submerged, or when tasked with dealing with particulate-laden liquids or toxic/corrosive merchandise, and likewise one which is prepared to be maintained and repaired in order that downtime is lessened. The pumps should even be mild enough to be manually moved from location to location inside the mine itself.
For a few years, a preferred choice for use in these conditions was centrifugal pumps. While centrifugal pumps are in a place to create the excessive move rates that are required, they’ve a quantity of operational “pain points” that hamper their use in mining functions: an lack of ability to self-prime or run dry; special seals needed to stop leaks; particular linings needed to handle solids; excessive motor speeds of up to 1,800 rpm; and relatively excessive maintenance necessities and costs, particularly when charged with transferring solid-heavy liquids.
Another in style selection has been the progressive cavity pump, however, like centrifugal pumps, they have numerous operational shortcomings. These embody an inability to persistently deal with liquids with high ranges of abrasives, which results in increased upkeep prices, put on on costly stators and rotors that will eventually have to be replaced, and total larger buy, operating, and repair/replacement costs.
Here are a number of the particular liquid-transfer operations that take place in a mine and the ways that some pump technologies can fall quick in satisfying them:
Mine dewatering: Removing excess produced water from the mine is a important 24/7/365 operation and the water that is recovered is usually filled with particulates that may be as large as 0.12 to 0.sixteen inches in measurement. If used on this application, centrifugal pumps require particular materials of building, which may be cost prohibitive, to protect towards impeller wear caused by the abrasive particles. Centrifugal pumps are also not dry-run capable, which adversely impacts their stage of efficiency in this software.
General service: For widespread liquid-handling applications, you want an easy-to-operate pump that reliably can run dry, strip traces, operate at low speeds while nonetheless delivering high move rates, and be simple to maintain and repair. Centrifugal pumps merely do not possess these capabilities.
Corrosive liquids: Much like solid-laden liquids, corrosive ones can wreak havoc on the wetted components of centrifugal and progressive cavity pumps. This typically calls for a need to use special mechanical seals, which may result in exorbitant maintenance, restore, and substitute prices.
Press filter: Press filters are used to clean the liquids which may be produced in the mines and, once more, centrifugal pumps can fall quick on this utility as a end result of the solid-laden liquid can harm the pump’s internals until special, more expensive materials of development or linings are used. Also, the character of press-filter operation creates a robust discharge-pressure variation that may pressure the centrifugal pump to operate away from its greatest efficiency level (BEP), leading to excessive vibration and radial masses that may lead to shortened service life. A resolution to this is the incorporation of variable frequency drives (VFDs) and controllers, however these are costly and can negatively affect the cost-effectiveness of the operation.
Product switch: This comes in all varieties in a mining operation, from loading and unloading from transport vehicles with new and used oil for the heavy machinery, recent and fouled water, and any chemical compounds which are required. In every instance, there’s the risk that the pump shall be compelled to run dry because the truck or storage vessel is emptied, whereas discharge-pressure variation can also generate excessive vibration and radial masses. As previously illustrated, centrifugal pumps can’t run dry, so that they want safety from this condition or the addition of particular seals. However, all of those upgrades still can’t completely shield against a catastrophic failure.
THE SOLUTION

While centrifugal pumps—despite their popularity—have proven to not be the best solution in many liquid-handling purposes in mining, one pump expertise that has confirmed to be an optimum alternative is AODD—in terms of maximizing reliability, cost-effectiveness, ease of operation and upkeep, and safety for mining personnel and the environment.
AODD pumps are able to perform successfully in mining applications as a result of their methodology of operation allows them to simply handle variable flow charges and pressures, while being dry-run and line-stripping succesful, and nimble sufficient to transfer liquids which would possibly be shear-sensitive or high-viscosity, in addition to slurries laden with rocks, pebbles, and other particulates.
The easy design of the AODD pump features few shifting components and comparably decrease speeds than other pump technologies, which improves reliability and simplifies maintenance, whereas the pump’s seal-less building results in fewer leaks, which is a important consideration when handling the many hard-to-seal, corrosive, or hazardous liquids which are prevalent in a mining operation. AODD pumps are available in both metal (most commonly aluminum, ductile iron and solid iron) and plastic (polypropylene and PVDF) housing constructions, while a extensive selection of elastomers can be used in the diaphragms, which eliminates many chemical-compatibility concerns.
A broad number of AODD pump configurations provide operational flexibility that may also end in optimized performance at many ranges. The capability to feature AODD pumps in a variety of functions, from fundamental basic use to delicate chemical-handling processes, permits operators to more cost-effectively outfit their mines. AODD pumps can be less costly to function, particularly those models that are outfitted with a next-generation mechanically actuated air distribution system (ADS). At their most elementary, AODD pumps excel in the typical rugged and harsh operating conditions found in the world’s mines, which reduces breakdown incidents together with corresponding downtime and restore prices.
Specifically, Wilden, whose founder, Jim Wilden, conceived the AODD pumping principle sixty-five years in the past, has been devoted to developing applied sciences that meet the needs of mining operations. Today, Wilden offers three AODD pump fashions that are built to excel in mining purposes, obtainable in ductile iron, forged iron, aluminum, polypropylene and Kynar supplies of building:
Brahma® Series: The Brahma pumps, which function a bolted configuration, have been constructed for use in applications that require the dealing with of liquids that includes massive solids. The Brahma pumps have a novel top-inlet/bottom-discharge move orientation and flap valves that enable the passage of huge solids with no threat that harm will occur on account of product entrapment or the settling of solids throughout the pump’s inner move paths. Brahma pumps are available in two models—PS810 (2-inch) and PS1510 (3-inch)—that are outfitted with the revolutionary Pro-Flo® SHIFT ADS, which has been designed to scale back air consumption by as a lot as 60 percent. The T810 and T1510 models are powered by the Turbo-Flo™ ADS, the industry’s first air motor for AODD pumps. The flow-rate vary for the 4 Brahma pumps is 166 to 258 gallons per minute at pressures as much as one hundred twenty five psi with solids-handling capability starting from 2 to 3 inches.
Stallion® Series: The Stallion pumps characteristic a clamped design with carrying handles for lightweight portability. Their design options giant inside clearances and flow-through paths for simple passage of huge solids with no likelihood for clogging. An altered ball/seat check-valve assembly additional permits solids passage, whereas a polyurethane display base at the inlet will increase the pump’s sturdiness. The PS4, PS8, and PS15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) models are powered by a Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, with the T4, T8, and T15 (1.5-, 2-, and 3-inch) pumps featuring the Turbo-Flo ADS, Wilden’s most robust ADS design for the hardest environments. Flow charges amongst the six fashions vary from 57 gallons per minute to 232 gallons per minute at working pressures up to a hundred twenty five psi. Solids sizes that may be dealt with vary from half of to 1 inch.
Pro-Flo SHIFT Series: Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps characteristic clamped or bolted configuration. Their design features completely different chamber supplies, including metallic and plastics, even Kynar, which is able to handling excessive ranges of abrasive materials. The Pro-Flo SHIFT can be the most environment friendly AODD pump available within the market, able to lowering as a lot as 60 p.c air consumption. This makes it the greatest option for handling corrosive and abrasive products in mining processes. The pumps have a product range that goes from 1.5 to 3 inches and flows from 2 to 271 gallons per minute.
All of the Brahma, Stallion, and Pro-Flo SHIFT pumps are in a position to be outfitted with a wide selection of diaphragm styles—including the newer Chem-Fuse, EZ-Install, and Reduced-Stroke models—in a varying array of materials, such as Wil-Flex™ (Santoprene®), Geolast®, Polyurethane, Buna-N®, EPDM, Neoprene, FKM, and PTFE. This diaphragm vary provides customers the widest number of diaphragms on the market, all of that are capable of offering prolonged mean time between failure (MTBF) for optimized uptime with lowered maintenance, restore, and substitute prices.
All of those capabilities make AODD pumps the best choice for the aforementioned common liquid-handling applications in mining: dewatering, common service, corrosive-handling, filter press, and every day product transfer.
CONCLUSION

In abstract, Wilden AODD pumps are the best option for mining purposes as a end result of they offer considerable operational advantages, like comparable low-speed operation, dry-run, line-stripping, self-priming, and deadhead capability, together with elevated operational safety and a reduction in maintenance/repair costs that may be incurred by pumps that are not designed to deal with abrasive/corrosive or solid-laden liquids.
Wilden AODD pumps also outperform other AODD technologies in other significant ways: easy design with the bottom number of elements for sooner, easier, and safer repairs and the lowest number of spare components to stock; recent enhancements in materials of building that improve the pump’s MTBF; and improved efficiency by way of the utilization of the Pro-Flo SHIFT ADS, which finally leads to sooner product transfer with decrease air consumption. Wilden also continues to innovate through the development of the next-generation Chem-Fuse and EZ-Install diaphragms, both of which improve service life and security while not compromising the dealing with of difficult liquids.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Fernando Meneses is the regional manager North Latin America for Wilden, a quantity one producer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps. He can be reached at fernando.meneses@psgdover.com. Wilden is a product brand of PSG®, a Dover company. PSG is comprised of several leading pump companies, together with Abaque®, All-Flo™, Almatec®, Blackmer®, Ebsray, em-tec®, Griswold®, Hydro™, Mouvex®, Neptune®, Quantex™, Quattroflow®, RedScrew™, and Wilden®. For more information, visit www.wildenpump.com or www.psgdover.com.
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